A new coral salinity record shows that the most significant hydroclimatic feature in the Southern Hemisphere influences a major Pacific Ocean current.
Rainfall patterns in the Sahara during the six-thousand-year “Green Sahara” period have been revealed by analyzing marine sediments.
A close-up of a Litsea calicarioides leaf’s stomata, through which leaves take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen, speaks to atmospheric CO2 levels 23 million years ago.
Figuring out how far sea level rose during past warm periods in Earth’s history starts with a walk on the beach, a keen eye for evidence of ancient shorelines, and a highly accurate GPS system.
A new study supplies the longest and most complete record of ancient plant life in much of what is now Ethiopia and Kenya, the assumed birthplace of humanity.
As excess carbon dioxide is absorbed into the oceans, it is starting to have profound effects on marine life, from oysters to tiny snails at the base of the food chain.
Much of the modern understanding of climate has been shaped by pioneering studies done at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
Using tree rings, a new drought atlas maps the reach and severity of dry and wet periods across Europe and the Mediterranean over the past 2,000 years.
As global temperatures rise, knowing just how far Greenland’s ice sheet shrank in the past could help scientists predict sea level rise in the future.
A new study finds that the Horn of Africa is drying at a rate that is both unusual in the context of the past 2,000 years and in step with human-influenced warming.
Ancient pollen is providing new insights into historic droughts in Southern California, including how a series of mega-droughts that changed the ecological landscape.
A new study of tree rings from Mongolia dating back more than 1,000 years confirms that recent warming in central Asia has no parallel in any known record.
During the second half of the 21st century, the U.S. Southwest and Great Plains will face drought worse than anything seen in times ancient or modern, a new study says.